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The ten essences are seen as the elemental substances on Roshar. Each essence has an associated number, gemstone, body focus, Soulcasting property, and primary and secondary Divine Attributes. Soulcasters can create any of the ten essences, but some are attuned to particular essences.

Essences Number Gemstone Body Focus Soulcasting Properties Prim. / Sec. Divine Attributes
Zephyr Jes Sapphire Inhalation Translucent gas, air Protecting Leading
Vapor Nan Smokestone Exhalation Opaque gas, smoke, fog Just Confident
Spark Chach Ruby The Soul Fire Brave Obedient
Lucentia ** Vev Diamond The Eyes Quartz, glass, crystal Loving Healing
Pulp Palah Emerald The Hair Wood, plants, moss Learned Giving
Blood Shash Garnet The Blood Blood, all non-oil liquid Creative Honest
Tallow Betab Zircon Oil All kinds of oil Wise Careful
Foil Kak Amethyst The Nails Metal Resolute Builder
Talus Tenat Topaz The Bone Rock and stone Dependable Resourceful
Sinew Ishi Heliodor Flesh Meat, flesh Pious Guiding

(**) The eyes are associated with crystal and glass because they are the windows into the mind and the spirit.[1]


The printed version of the book contains a typo switching the Divine Attributes "Learned/Giving" and "Just/Confident". Confirmed by Peter Ahlstrom, Brandon Sanderson's assistant.[2]