Stormlight Archive Wiki

Many languages are both spoken and written throughout the kingdoms of Roshar.


According to Brandon, the Alethi language has its roots in Arabic and Hebrew, with a little bit of Chinese thrown in here and there, though mostly with Arabic.[1]

The Alethi script and glyphs are commonly used in Alethkar. Since reading and writing are considered feminine arts; Alethi script is used solely by women and ardents, while men learned only glyphs.

All glyphs are vertically symmetrical, and the written Alethi script is horizontally symmetrical around the line on which it is written.

Known Terms
Accents and Dialects Mentioned


Kingdom or Country: Bavland

  • Kurp: A child in the local Bav dialect.[7] Stated by Szeth.


Main article: Dawnchant

Dawnchant is an ancient language spoken by the Knights Radiant in Dalinar's visions.

The Vanrial sing chants that they believe were written in the Dawnchant, though all knowledge of its meaning or translation has been lost.[8]

  • Anak malah kaf, del makian habian yah ... .: "To be Human is to want that which we cannot have."[8] (Dalinar spoke this during one of his visions.)
Navani responds, "It's a line from a song, ... A chant by the Vanrial ... "
" ... songs they claim were written in the Dawnchant by the Heralds themselves."[8]
  • Ur: means 'original'.[9]


Kingdom or Country: Herdaz

  • Chortana: a word Lopen refers to Jasnah.[10]
  • Gon (pronounced 'gone'): Lopen used this when referring to Kaladin upon first meeting him.
"We Herdazians are great fighters, gon."[11]
  • Gancho: the term by which Lopen refers to Kaladin.
  • Hooch: the term by which Lopen refers to Sigzil.[12]
  • Moolie: means mute.[11]
  • Naco: a word Lopen uses to refer to his spren, Rua.[10]
  • Penhito: a word Lopen flings at the Stormfather when outraged.[10] (Presumably an insult.)


Kingdom or Country: Iri


Kingdom or Country: Kharbranth



Kingdom or Country: Azir


Kingdom or Country: Emul


Kingdom or Country: Tukar


Kingdom or Country: The Shattered Plains

  • Essai: used to refer a “human lover”, one who is loyal to humans, technically means “hairy”.[13]
  • Neshua Kadal!: The Parshendi began to call this to each other before they fled from Kaladin.[11][14] It means Knight Radiant.[15]
  • Ulo mas vara: This is the term by which Parshendi refer to chasmfiends.[16]


Kingdom or Country: Selay lands


Kingdom or Country: Shinovar


Kingdom or Country: Thaylenah

  • Babsk: possibly, master. Rysn, who is apprenticed to Vstim, refers to him as her babsk.[18] Iyatil is babsk to Mraize.[19]
  • Gthlebn Thaylen?: "Do you speak Thaylen?"[20]
  • Mkai bade fortenthis!: meaning unknown.[21]
  • Shaylor mkabat nour.: "The winds have brought us safely." (A phrase of thanks.)[21]

Accents and Dialects Mentioned:

  • Yalb spoke in a rural Thaylen dialect.[21]


Kingdom or Country: Horneater Peaks

  • Alaii'iku: meaning unknown. Rock called himself this as an explanation to why he could see Syl.[22]
  • Ali'i'kamura: referenced by Rock as a protector.[23][21]
  • Alil'tiki'i: meaning unknown. Might refer to Rock's title or rank.
Rock ... " ... we would have to duel in the traditional alil'tiki'i fashion."[24]
Rock, after he had shaved ... "I feel like a true alil'tiki'i again!" [25]
  • Holetental: "Is of the holetental. For him only." (Rock, referring to the Surgebinding Kaladin has done.)[26]
  • Hualinam'lunanaki'akulu : Rock's daughter Cord's Unkalaki name.[citation needed]
  • Humaka'aban: refers to the beard, sideburns, pattern that Rock wears.[25]
  • Kali'kalin: in reference to an Unkalaki god.
"Oh, Kali'kalin's ghost," Rock muttered.[27]
  • Kali'kalin'da: Rock's exclamation in response to the two dozen or more honorspren that accompany Phendorana.[28]
  • Kaluk'i'iki: Rock says to Kaladin, "I shall name you my kaluk'i'iki". When no one gets the joke he explains that only a woman can be a kaluk'i'iki. It does not mean wife.[23]
  • Kuma'tiki: Rock's second daughter. Her name is a kind of shell, which does not exist on the Shattered Plains.[28]
  • Mafa'liki: Spren. Referring to Syl, Rock names her thusly.[22]
  • Nuatoma: leader or chief.[29]
  • Numuhukumakuaki'aialunamor: Rock's real name.[22]
Translates as a description of a special rock his father found. The entire name is a poem.
  • Oo’kali’laa’e: an insult.[30]
  • Tuaka'li'na'calmi'nor: Rock's wife Song's Unkalaki name.[28]
  • Uli'tekanaki: some type of god or guiding spirit or being.
Rock says ... "By the Uli'tekanaki, Kaladin. I almost beleive you'll do it."[31]
Rock says ... "The Uli'tekanaki guide you" to Kaladin.[6]
  • Umalakai'ki! ... Kama mohoray namavau ... : meaning unknown. Rock bellowed this when the bridgemen checked on Kaladin after the storm.[32]
  • Umarti'a: means cousin.[29]


Kingdom or Country: Jah Keved

Native language of Shallan and House Davar. Veden is similar to Alethi.[33]

Cosmere: Duladen[]

Kingdom or Country: Duladell, cosmere world: Sel.

Duladen[34] is a language spoken on Sel, the planet on which the city of Elantris is located

  • Alavanta kamaloo kayana: (Something something) crazy.[17]
Spoken by the foreigner Grump at the conclusion of the meeting with Ishikk the fisherman.[17]


Again according to Brandon, languages in the cosmere are going to vary based on his needs for a given book. He spends his worldbuilding time on what is relevant to the characters and story. So, for instance, the linguistics in Elantris were really important to the story. The linguistics in Mistborn were not as important to the story, so he spent more time on the languages for Sel than he did for Scadrial. He did spend a decent amount of time on the languages for Roshar because all the different cultures and things like that having conflicts with one another is a big part of the story.[35]

Q&A with Brandon[]

Q. Are all cosmere languages derived from Yolish (like French and Spanish are to Latin) or did the Shards create them on their own?

A. Some people - other than those on Yolen - predate the Shattering of Adonalsium, remember. So no. But many others do share a common root.[36]

Q. What is the most fully-developed you've made any of the languages in the books? Or do you just come up with the sounds and just sort of stop?

A. It depends on which ones. Like, the further we go in the books, the more developed they become. Peter is a linguist, was a linguistics major, so I lean on him heavily for some of these things. Korean gets used all the time. Because I speak Korean and did my mission in Korea ... .[37]


  1. Emerald City ComicCon 2018, Seattle, WA, 3/1/18
  2. The Way of Kings, 22. Eyes, Hands, or Spheres?
  3. The Way of Kings, 52. A Highway to the Sun
  4. Oathbringer, 73. Telling Which Stories
  5. The Way of Kings, 28. Decision
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Way of Kings, 43. The Wretch
  7. The Way of Kings, Inter3.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 The Way of Kings, 60. That Which We Cannot Have
  9. Rhythm of War, 83. The Games Of Men And Singers
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Oathbringer, 121. Ideals
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 The Way of Kings, 32. Side Carry
  12. Oathbringer, 35. First Into The Sky
  13. Rhythm of War, 60. Essai
  14. The Way of Kings, 67. Words
  15. Oathbringer, 109. Neshua Kadal
  16. The Way of Kings, 13. Ten Heartbeats
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 The Way of Kings, Inter1.
  18. 18.0 18.1 The Way of Kings, Inter4.
  19. Words of Radiance, 63. A Burning World
  20. Rhythm of War, 30. The Betrayal
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 The Way of Kings, 3. City of Bells
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 The Way of Kings, 21. Why Men Lie
  23. 23.0 23.1 The Way of Kings, 49. To Care
  24. The Way of Kings, 27. Chasm Duty
  25. 25.0 25.1 The Way of Kings, 40. Eyes of Red and Blue
  26. The Way of Kings, 73. Trust
  27. The Way of Kings, 55. An Emerald Broam
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Oathbringer, 37. The Last Time We March
  29. 29.0 29.1 The Way of Kings, 23. Many Uses
  30. Rhythm of War, 73. Which Master To Follow
  31. The Way of Kings, 34. Stormwall
  32. The Way of Kings, 35. A Light by Which to See
  33. The Way of Kings, 5. Heretic
  34. Duladen
  35. iCon 2019, Tel Aviv, Israel, 10/15/19
  36. Stormlight Three Update #4, /r/Stormlight_Archive, 9/8/16
  37. Oathbringer release party, Provo, UT, 11/13/17